Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted virus in the world. There are over 200 types of HPV, with about 40 affecting the genital area. Some types cause benign genital warts, while others are strongly associated with the development of cervical and other cancers affecting the vulva, vagina, anus, oropharynx, penis, and, according to recent research, even the skin.
HPV infection often goes unnoticed initially, as it is frequently asymptomatic. In most cases, the immune system effectively clears the infection within a year without health issues. Therefore, individuals often don't realize they have had or currently have an HPV infection. Some types of HPV can lead to genital warts (condylomas) a few weeks after infection. Genital warts are the most common HPV-related disease in the external genital area. Persistent infection with certain cancer-causing types of HPV can lead to precancerous stages or cancer over many years. рак.
Genital warts typically don't require extensive diagnosis and can be identified at a glance. In cases of uncertainty, a biopsy of the affected area and histopathological examination are available. Changes in the cervix due to HPV can be detected through cytology, histopathological examination, and tests for the detection of viral DNA (PCR).
We are official partners of clinics that offer HPV detection tests and treatment for organs affected by the virus. Diagnostics in Switzerland, including CorSwiss offers top-class treatment of gynaecological diseases in leading Swiss private clinics. We are official partners of such clinics asWe are official partners of clinics that offer HPV detection tests and treatment for organs affected by the virus.
While HPV infection often occurs during vaginal, anal, or oral sex, it's not the only way the virus spreads. HPV can also be transmitted through direct contact with an infected person's saliva or blood, as well as during childbirth. Additionally, infection can occur in places such as hair salons, beauty parlors, pools, tattoo parlors, or saunas.
There are 150 types of HPV, including high-risk types associated with an increased risk of certain cancers, and low-risk types that typically result in genital warts around the genital and anal areas of both men and women.
Types 16 and 18 are responsible for cervical cancer, one of the most common cancers in women. High-risk HPV variants require special oncological vigilance and appropriate prevention, including regular gynecological visits and Pap smears..
Infection with types 16, 18, 31, and 33 also predisposes individuals to a higher incidence of cancers such as throat, tonsil, gum, cheek, and leukoplakia.
A specific preventive measure against cervical and other HPV-related cancers is vaccination, available from the age of 9. The vaccine is recommended for young girls and boys (preferably before the onset of sexual activity) and young people up to 26 years old.
The vaccine is not mandatory and is available at a cost.